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Serious How Science and Genetics are Reshaping the Race Debate of the 21st Century [2017]

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https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/science-genetics-reshaping-race-debate-21st-century/


by Vivian Chou
figures by Daniel Utter


Donald Trump’s election as the 45th President of the United States has been marked by the brewing storms of racial conflicts. A rise in racial incidents ensued in the immediate aftermath of Trump’s victory in November 2016. Since the beginning of 2017, over 100 bomb threatshave been made against Jewish community centers and schools. Trump’s travel ban, signed in late January 2017, initially affected about 90,000people from seven Middle Eastern countries; 87,000 of those banned were Muslims. Minorities such as American Muslims and black Americans have expressed fears over racial relations under Trump. Undeniably, the topic of race—and racism—has gripped America and the world throughout.

Over the last decade, there have been hopes that the US has become a post-racial society, free of racial prejudice and discrimination. However, the most recent months indicate the contrary: race remains an incendiary issue. Race and racism are not new issues, but in today’s 21st century Trump-era, discussions about race are distinct from those of the past in that they possess an entirely new dimension: that of genetics and DNA.

Race in the new era of human genetics research

In 2003, scientists completed the Human Genome Project, making it finally possible to examine human ancestry with genetics. Scientists have since tackled topics such as human migrations out of Africa and around the world. And it’s not just scientists who are excited about human genetics: widely affordable at-home ancestry test kits are now readily available from companies like 23andMe, Family Tree DNA, and Ancestry. For $99—around the price of a romantic dinner or a pair of Nikes—a customer can receive an analysis from 23andMe indicating that they are, for instance, 18.0% Native American, 65.1% European and 6.2% African.

The soaring popularity of ancestry testing bespeaks a widespread perception that we can use these tests to dissect, delineate, and define our ancestral composition. Indeed, social media is teeming with blog posts, and even livestream videos, from excited customers bursting to broadcast their test results and their reactions. Ancestry test kits are the new “it” item—and with their success is the tacit admission of our belief that our DNA can sort us into categories like the “five races:” African, European, Asian, Oceania, and Native American (Figure 1A).

Figure 1. ‘Race’ cannot be biologically defined due to genetic variation among human individuals and populations. (A) The old concept of the “five races:” African, Asian, European, Native American, and Oceanian. According to this view, variation between the races is large, and thus, the each race is a separate category. Additionally, individual races are thought to have a relatively uniform genetic identity. (B) Actual genetic variation in humans. Human populations do roughly cluster into geographical regions. However, variation between different regions is small, thus blurring the lines between populations. Furthermore, variation within a single region is large, and there is no uniform identity. Figure 1: ‘Race’ cannot be biologically defined due to genetic variation among human individuals and populations. (A) The old concept of the “five races:” African, Asian, European, Native American, and Oceanian. According to this view, variation between the races is large, and thus, the each race is a separate category. Additionally, individual races are thought to have a relatively uniform genetic identity. (B) Actual genetic variation in humans. Human populations do roughly cluster into geographical regions. However, variation between different regions is small, thus blurring the lines between populations. Furthermore, variation within a single region is large, and there is no uniform identity.

New findings in genetics tear down old ideas about race

Estimating our ancestral composition down to 0.1% seem to suggest that there are exact, categorical divisions between human populations. But reality is far less simple. Compared to the general public’s enthusiasm for ancestry testing, the reaction from scientists has been considerably more lukewarm. Research indicates that the concept of “five races” does, to an extent, describe the way human populations are distributed among the continents—but the lines between races are much more blurred than ancestry testing companies would have us believe (Figure 1B).

A landmark 2002 study by Stanford scientists examined the question of human diversity by looking at the distribution across seven major geographical regions of 4,000 alleles. Alleles are the different “flavors” of a gene. For instance, all humans have the same genes that code for hair: the different alleles are why hair comes in all types of colors and textures.

In the Stanford study, over 92% of alleles were found in two or more regions, and almost half of the alleles studied were present in all seven major geographical regions. The observation that the vast majority of the alleles were shared over multiple regions, or even throughout the entire world, points to the fundamental similarity of all people around the world—an idea that has been supported by many other studies (Figure 1B).

If separate racial or ethnic groups actually existed, we would expect to find “trademark” alleles and other genetic features that are characteristic of a single group but not present in any others. However, the 2002 Stanford study found that only 7.4% of over 4000 alleles were specific to one geographical region. Furthermore, even when region-specific alleles did appear, they only occurred in about 1% of the people from that region—hardly enough to be any kind of trademark. Thus, there is no evidence that the groups we commonly call “races” have distinct, unifying genetic identities. In fact, there is ample variation within races (Figure 1B).

Ultimately, there is so much ambiguity between the races, and so much variation within them, that two people of European descent may be more genetically similar to an Asian person than they are to each other (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Case study of genetic variation between three scientists. Left: Schematization of the genetic variation between Drs. James Watson, Craig Venter, and Kim Seong-jin. Colored bars represent genes; different colors represent different alleles, i.e. versions of genes. Some alleles are shared by all three of the men (represented by the dark brown allele that is shared by every person in this image). Besides the universal dark brown allele, Watson and Venter share one other allele (bright blue). However, both share two alleles with Kim (Watson shares red and orange with Kim, Venter shares green and magenta), in addition to the universal allele. Right: There is more similarity between the Kim and Watson and Kim and Venter, than there is between Watson and Venter. Figure 2: Case study of genetic variation between three scientists. Left: Schematization of the genetic variation between Drs. James Watson, Craig Venter, and Kim Seong-jin. Colored bars represent genes; different colors represent different alleles, i.e. versions of genes. Some alleles are shared by all three of the men (represented by the dark brown allele that is shared by every person in this image). Besides the universal dark brown allele, Watson and Venter share one other allele (bright blue). However, both share two alleles with Kim (Watson shares red and orange with Kim, Venter shares green and magenta), in addition to the universal allele. Right: There is more similarity between the Kim and Watson and Kim and Venter, than there is between Watson and Venter.

Does “race” still mean something?

The divisions between races are doubtlessly blurred, but does this necessarily mean that race is a myth—a mere social construct and biologically meaningless? As with other race-related questions, the answer is multi-dimensional and may well depend on whom you ask.

In the biological and social sciences, the consensus is clear: race is a social construct, not a biological attribute. Today, scientists prefer to use the term “ancestry” to describe human diversity (Figure 3). “Ancestry” reflects the fact that human variations do have a connection to the geographical origins of our ancestors—with enough information about a person’s DNA, scientists can make a reasonable guess about their ancestry. However, unlike the term “race,” it focuses on understanding how a person’s history unfolded, not how they fit into one category and not another. In a clinical setting, for instance, scientists would say that diseases such as sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis are common in those of “sub-Saharan African” or “Northern European” descent, respectively, rather than in those who are “black” or “white”.

Figure 3. Race versus ancestry. (A) The classification of people into different races is typically based on observable physical features, with skin color being the most prominently used characteristic. Racial classifications also draw upon non-biological characteristics such as culture, language, history, religion, and socioeconomic status. Thus, “race” is a term that lacks clear definition. (B) In contrast to race, “ancestry” emphasizes the geographical origins of one’s ancestors (parents, grandparents, and beyond). Unlike “race,” the concept of “ancestry” does not focus on the static categorization of humans into groups, but rather on the process by which a person’s history unfolded. Figure 3: Race versus ancestry. (A) The classification of people into different races is typically based on observable physical features, with skin color being the most prominently used characteristic. Racial classifications also draw upon non-biological characteristics such as culture, language, history, religion, and socioeconomic status. Thus, “race” is a term that lacks clear definition. (B) In contrast to race, “ancestry” emphasizes the geographical origins of one’s ancestors (parents, grandparents, and beyond). Unlike “race,” the concept of “ancestry” does not focus on the static categorization of humans into groups, but rather on the process by which a person’s history unfolded.
However, even if scientists agree that race is, at most, a social construct, any cursory search of the internet reveals that the broader public is not convinced of this. After all, if an Asian person looks so different from a European, how could they not be from distinct groups? Even if most scientists reject the concept of “race” as a biological concept, race exists, undeniably, as a social and political concept.

The popular classifications of race are based chiefly on skin color, with other relevant features including height, eyes, and hair. Though these physical differences may appear, on a superficial level, to be very dramatic, they are determined by only a minute portion of the genome: we as a species have been estimated to share 99.9% of our DNA with each other. The few differences that do exist reflect differences in environments and external factors, not core biology.

Importantly, the evolution of skin color occurred independently, and did not influence other traits such as mental abilities and behavior. In fact, science has yet to find evidence that there are genetic differences in intelligence between populations. Ultimately, while there certainly are some biological differences between different populations, these differences are few and superficial. The traits that we do share are far more profound

Science and genetics: Instruments of modern racism

Despite the scientific consensus that humanity is more alike than unlike, the long history of racism is a somber reminder that throughout human history, a mere 0.1% of variation has been sufficient justification for committing all manner of discriminations and atrocities. The advances in human genetics and the evidence of negligible differences between races might be expected to halt racist arguments. But, in fact, genetics has been used to further racist and ethnocentric arguments—as in the case of the alt-right, which promotes far-right ideologies, including white nationalism and anti-Semitism.

Considered a fringe movement for years, the alt-right gained considerable attention and relevance during Trump’s presidential campaign. Indeed, Steve Bannon, the current senior counselor and chief strategist to President Trump and the former chief executive officer of Trump’s campaign, has notable ties to the alt-right. Once relegated to obscure internet forums, the alt-right’s newest pulpit is the White House.

Members of the alt-right are enthusiastic proponents of ancestry testing as a way to prove their “pure” white heritage (with Scandinavian and Germanic ancestry being among the most desirable) and to rule out undesired descent from any other groups (including, unsurprisingly, Africans and the Ashkenazi Jews, but even certain European groups, such as Italians and Armenians). The belief in white superiority, and the need to preserve it, drives the alt-right movement—and genetics is both the weapon and battle standard of this new, supposedly “scientific” racism.

Those who disagree with alt-right ideologies may assume that the alt-right is merely spewing ignorant nonsense. This is certainly true for some of the alt-right. What is perhaps a more difficult truth is that many of the alt-right do, in fact, understand biology and genetics to an impressive extent, even if this understanding is flawed.

For instance, alt-right proponents have stated, correctly, that many people with European and Asian descent have inherited 1-4% of their DNA from Neanderthals ancestors, and those of African descent do not have Neanderthal heritage. They are similarly correct that Neanderthals had larger skulls than humans. Based on these facts, some within the alt-right have claimed that Europeans and Asians have superior intelligence because they have inherited larger brains from their Neanderthal ancestors.

However, this claim ignores that while there is evidence for the effect of Neanderthal DNA on certain traits, there has been no evidence for its effect on intelligence. Furthermore, scientific research indicates that the Neanderthals were not necessarily more intelligent simply because they had larger skulls. Unsurprisingly, the alt-right tends cherry-pick the ideas that align with their preconceived notions of racial hierarchies, ignoring the broader context of the field of human genetics.

Fighting racism with understanding

Just as the alt-right is no longer an easily dismissed fringe group, their arguments have some factual basis, and cannot be swept aside as the babbling of the scientific illiterate. The alt-right is not clumsy in their use of science and genetics in their battle for their “ideals.” Those who oppose the alt-right, and other racist entities, must arm themselves with the same weapons: education, namely scientific and genetic literacy.

Mounting scientific evidence has shown that humans are fundamentally more similar than different from each other. Nonetheless, racism has persisted. Scientific findings are often ignored, or otherwise actively misinterpreted and misused to further racist agendas of extreme political groups. Opponents of these forces must, through their own education and awareness, combat these misleading interpretations and representations of scientific findings.

Today, the question of “race” is no longer merely a political and social issue: as science has rapidly advanced, it has become irrevocably intertwined. The genome contains powerful insights about our biology that could unite us as a species, but which could also be dangerous and divisive if used without understanding. As we look forward to 2017 and onwards, it becomes ever more important to understand what our DNA says about what it means to be human.

Vivian Chou is a Ph.D. candidate in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences program at Harvard Medical School.

For more information:

The Atlantic “Will the alt-right promote a new kind of racist genetics?”(December 2016)

Harvard Magazine “Race in a genetic world” (2008)

Livescience “Genetic ancestry tests mostly hype, scientists say” (2007)

Science “The science and business of genetic ancestry testing” (2007; original paper cited in the Livescience article above)

Nature Genetics “Implications of biogeography of human populations for ‘race’ and medicine” (November 2004)
 
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Race denialist pseudoscience.

by Vivian Chou
figures by Daniel Utter
The noodlewhore-kike alliance bringing cultural marxism to your front door :feelskek:
 
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be sure to check out the ''thoughts'' at the OP; here is a small sample :forcedsmile:

503 thoughts on “How Science and Genetics are Reshaping the Race Debate of the 21st Century”​

  1. 957169b287e42a448647c5a13d820beb
    Bru Swan
    MAY 2, 2017 AT 11:31 PM
    I totally agree with your premise about race. Scientist using the term ancestry instead of race; kudos to them, if only the general public would pick up on that. If the “out of Africa theory” which the evidence and research seems to support with a high level of confidence was communicated so the public better understood our ancestry and the road our species has traveled to get were we are today then maybe our view of race and the prejudices that ensue from the term “race” would be lessened considerably. Unfortunately to many of us have beliefs that are inconsistent with scientific theory and that only clouds our true understanding of ancestry and the journey our species took to populate the world.
    REPLY
    1. 443fa31dc42b10ad207e439baaead0f1
      Susan Voelker
      NOVEMBER 19, 2017 AT 7:20 AM
      ” the “out of Africa theory” which the evidence and research seems to support with a high level of confidence was communicated so the public better understood our ancestry ” That silly OUT OF AFRICA theory is probably dead now, with new discoveries of more Ancient skulls from Asia
      REPLY
      1. 10699b857e1da52ee13af51859c5daf9
        Charlie
        DECEMBER 7, 2017 AT 8:15 AM
        No, it’ll take more than one discovery of a pre-human species to change the “silly” Out of Africa theory, for which all evidence points to.
        REPLY
        1. aa61faf2d12af945cf529e52f5cce1b5
          Wallace Tharp
          JULY 11, 2020 AT 12:24 AM
          Yes, note (Piltdown Man), We got a hell of a chuckle out of that historic event when I was taking anthropology in about 1997. Concept is still valid today. I remember in archaeology class learning about what a thief one of the early anthropologist was in Arizona and New Mexico! Sometimes making things up to support his own theories also. I love science but human beings are still doing science. Consider also how two of the most highly recognized persons in their field of science can swear and be damage that the other person is full of beans! Don’t get me wrong, Science is good. At my age I realize one night must not become too full of one’s self.
          REPLY
        2. 6784f390fd2869b1f60d09ff4998b494
          David Effler
          SEPTEMBER 20, 2022 AT 7:24 PM
          We could begin this discarding of the race concept by all activists (of any orientation) who insist of the continued use of this concept by stopping our conversations outside of the research environment. “Person of color” seems to be perhaps the most idiotic manifestation of this tendency. While many would applaud the discarding of the idea of race, you are still asked to declare a race for many purposes (job application, registering to vote, etc.). “The black community,” “white privilege,” “Native American culture” for further examples. All of these supposed discreet groups are heterogenous, and I wouldn’t mind chucking all of them. If you want to tell me about your Jewish ancestry, of which you are proud, I’ll listen. But that is the expression of a single human. I will not use this description to then conceptualize other people who are at least putative members of this same “group.”
          REPLY
      2. b5cff1b3b53a50d4c941a7fd42d3221b
        anonomous
        JANUARY 1, 2019 AT 2:15 AM
        Exactly so what makes this true they said we all have a black gene now that dna is there and many European have tests that show not one bit not even 000.1 percent of the so called “eve gene” its all deception to take white peoples identity away /and act like all these countries,their accents,way of life didn’t take thousands of years to create as though everyone is the same its not unique an its only the people who feel worthless who want to mix or feel guilt that they shouldn’t who believe this bs
        REPLY
        1. 6787efe8568e1213d2e0072dc119c983
          Fabiola
          MARCH 29, 2019 AT 4:28 PM
          The mere reference to “ black” gene highlights the hold the social construct of races of men has on so many. No such thing as “ black” genes. Just as there is no such things as “ middle class”, “ lower class” , and “ upper class” genes. ( note: members of societies with rigid class structures would probably disagree with me.
          The expression of alleles- such as brown eyes, brown skin, does not a separate race make.
          REPLY
          1. 7c5ffe5fae6b3fa53c264ccb30dc4f30
            Paul Wales UK
            MAY 29, 2020 AT 4:12 PM
            There is a complete confusion here about social science thinking (eg classes have some social mobility) and absolute real science.
            Take Gender difference Male and female (please keep it simple for today) Physical and Biological differences between them-the main one of course Women can have babies Men can’t.
            Why so- answer different genetic make up of genders in the first place.
            The same is true with ethnicity but much more subtly genetically but never the less still genetic.
            Skin Colour is a physical quantity and therefore genetically derived.
            There are some other subtle physical quantities take the BAME difference re severe Covid.
            Reason is the muscle structure is slightly different in different ethnicities and hence the respiratory muscles acting on the pulmonary pump have slightly different mechanics and inertia in different ethnicities and also different genders.
            Most efficient gender respiratory muscle type is Female compared to Male
            Ethnicity it is Chinese-Caucasian-Asian-Black.
            Think of sports This is general most Sprint champions are Black and Most Swimming Champions are Caucasian possibly Chinese .
            I hope nobody reading this will take it as Racist just real science.
            Racist is real prejudice or slight prejudice eg like the White police in South USA allowed somehow to get away with murder and often the Southern States allowing things like this to happen -the white major seems OK though.
            By the way intelligence is not genetic the most brilliant sccientific mathematical geniuses were some Black American Ladies who ensured USA astronauts landed on moon and returned safely in 1960s
          2. 4c0a5a3d9250e4fa948fa95670c57cd4
            Steph
            FEBRUARY 25, 2021 AT 4:22 PM
            Genes responsible for diversity of human skin colors identified
            https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171012143324.htm
          3. 0e5df1879e6783352721e27efea713e1
            christopher
            FEBRUARY 2, 2022 AT 10:25 PM
            you are correct and evolution is still the dumbest thing human beings ever devised. The only Truth I know God of The Creator of Heavens and Earth tells us we are created in God’s image. Alot of people have already taken the mark of disobiedence aka mark of the beast. They act worse than animals because they have forfeited their freewill because they have chosen death over eternal life In and through High Priest King Lord Yeshua Saviour of the world. I believe wild animals have more since than anybody that believes in different races. God seperated us humans by language and not be skin color,hair,or by skeletal features. Being God has no respect of persons so why should he favor one skin color or skeletal features over another. there cut and dry simple.
          4. beca1d7d509a558978497c92cf6871cb
            Dr Bernard Capaldi
            SEPTEMBER 12, 2022 AT 1:57 PM
            Your comment about “black” genes is interesting and you need to put this statement into some sort of context. The truth of the matter is that, apparently, according to science, there are genes that are linked to (or control!) the colour of skin. Genes such as SLC24A5 and MFSD12 . I have just started reading about this, and other topics, as I want to improve my own understanding of racism. I am a white male and resist any generic or specific attempt to portray me as a racist, So I am trying to understand why there is racism whether colour on colour, colour on white, white on colour (the most notorious) or white on white.
        2. cc8d1086e513b42b8cc1adb988d79322
          Cee
          MAY 20, 2019 AT 5:27 PM
          White is not a gene, it’s a description. Call yourself what you want. It will never be biological tho
          REPLY
          1. 0d98b1b63e001510514d75da27f640e9
            rehypothecation
            SEPTEMBER 7, 2020 AT 11:49 AM
            Really, so why are babies with white parents not occasionally born black?
          2. a6d7b66c41a7722cdba2abc3b3eec81f
            Benjamin William Smith
            APRIL 18, 2021 AT 6:46 PM
            I agree. Unlike biology, “race” is a cultural/outward thing. Whereas, “biology is not a race” (Harvard.edu)
        3. a541397960683ba99ba920b234428a54
          David Weiss
          JULY 8, 2019 AT 12:19 PM
          You’re exactly right. Remember: It’s ok to be white. Also: It’s ok to be in a white nation. Lastly: It’s ok to want to stay a white nation
          REPLY
          1. 1eb063ed111a6039bd916c1a9659cb49
            Aron
            DECEMBER 25, 2019 AT 2:17 PM
            Lol bulshit… Everyone came out of Africa. Your 1% African DNA said it.
          2. eb5299f2da24b5697ebbaccb4ac325be
            Abby
            JANUARY 13, 2020 AT 8:51 PM
            It’s truly not okay to want to stay a white nation. Your ignorance and refusal to grow your mindset is startling. You are commenting on an article written by scientists and backed up by fact and are still being blatantly racist. I am baffled that people who say the words “it’s okay to want to stay a white nation still exist”. It gives me little hope for the future of our nation. It truly isn’t meant to be a white nation where white man reigns supreme. We are a nation of immigrants and color and diversity. That’s what makes us special. That’s what made us the country where people felt anything was possible. They know they can come here and make it, because we are a country of opportunity. Just because you are a white male who is stuck in the past, but I’d just like to inform you that this nation was built by immigrants and people of color and this land belongs to them as much as it does you. You’re absolutely unbelievable. I am simply a high school freshman and I am beyond outraged by your comment. I just encourage you to stop for a second and review why you feel you’re so entitled to being a white supremacist. What makes you feel good about ostracizing people for something that doesn’t even exist? You sound ridiculous. If skin color reflected the DNA and genetics of people, the inside part, we would all have the same skin color. I hope for God’s sake you read what I am saying and actually consider it. You will sadly never be a fully functioning member of society if the one thing you believe is that people with pale skin are superior. I am in complete and utter shock and disbelief. I will say it again. We are not a white nation, nor is it okay for you to believe it is okay to want to stay a white nation. Anything about race and race itself that you are worried about is the result of the white man destroying entire societies and countries and villages and ravaging entire nations. If anyone is to blame for this notion of race it is people like you, yourself, sir.
          3. db7b5b3116155e4f6abe9eed572623f8
            enoughisenough
            FEBRUARY 25, 2020 AT 2:05 PM
            Agree, David. I would love for the US to be 100% white again. The open borders, and hordes of illegals entering our country has caused a disaster to which there is no fix. Not to mention the blacks, who pillage all the major cities and contribute nothing towards making America a great and safe country. Yes, give me a white nation.
          4. f2f16020d36bdc16c905e7bd331db5df
            D
            MAY 4, 2020 AT 11:43 PM
            I have mostly Scottish and Irish ancestry, but I am ashamed to be linked with a notion that the United States of America was EVER a “White Nation.” Also, “people of color” should be a term that does NOT exclude northern European ancestry as they are also as colorful as the rest of the world. There isn’t an “us” and a “them.” There are ideologies and mindsets that should be opposed because they are destructive, but we are all on the same team. We are trying to make this world a better place. Let us not get stuck in name calling and labelling people groups as inferior or superior. Let us, instead, aim for high ideals under which all are respected and treated with the human rights that made the United States so beautiful in the first place.
          5. ab58fd6d70215a81bf4e614568d03e49
            ric vegas
            MAY 25, 2020 AT 2:57 PM
            I hate to break it to you seeking a “white nation” on the North American continent, but your ancestry is in Europe. Those of indigenous ancestry in the US (“full blooded”, “half blooded”), is about 13%.
          6. 3029c55a4c94a5f9b68ddac7ac4d534e
            AB
            OCTOBER 16, 2020 AT 7:53 AM
            And what makes you think you are white? white is the colour of snow or cotton wool. I have never seen a person with white skin before. All I see are people with “pig skin colour” referring to themselves as whites
          7. eb78bcae93d7a747af4ab218d81c9d33
            Paige
            APRIL 12, 2021 AT 5:35 PM
            “It’s ok to be white. Also: It’s ok to be in a white nation. Lastly: It’s ok to want to stay a white nation”
            This is a textbook example of white supremacy and white nationalism. David appears to be a white supremacist, white nationalist.
          8. ef62862eafd669722de64992fb6a6113
            Sly
            APRIL 27, 2021 AT 10:52 AM
            Yeah and ok to have stayed out of other nations that were not so called white where your kind stole lands and stayed behind till date,payback is coming
          9. 0975f7efe5f7b17dd9cb50195fe8bf5f
            J T Ridenour
            AUGUST 10, 2021 AT 2:18 AM
            Hell, no, it’s not
          10. 421c44e09a8df3b43e2c567f0070fd4e
            John Broody
            AUGUST 23, 2021 AT 9:41 AM
            It’s amazing how politics entered Harvard’s study. Science runs on money. Are outcomes of scientific studies now being dictated by politics?
          11. ac8590f38d1598ecf78205e368914c07
            SlaveryUnderwroteIndustrialRevolutions
            AUGUST 24, 2021 AT 1:55 AM
            It’s ok to want to stay a child. Good luck with that.
            And gee, I wonder what is God’s opinion on “race purity” and how “superior” it is to be “pure”..?
            I would think the consequences of inbreeding vs. the benefits of “hybrid vigor” should give some indication.
            And America will NEVER be able to call itself a “white nation” as long as the stolen free labor of Africa Americans were what financed and enabled Industrial Revolutions and Empire-building of both US and Great Britain. And while the struggles of African Americans is what’s created-amendment by amendment-the “more perfect” first true democracy on the planet, out of the hypocrisy left by slave-dependant Founding Fathers.
          12. 70b220a3c2950232d9406d20c32fa42e
            Jonnie Forbes
            SEPTEMBER 24, 2021 AT 8:29 PM
            Remember, it’s ok to think the earth is flat as well. A 2018 YouGov poll found that between 1.28 and 2 percent of at least 8,000 people asked, think the earth is flat. Thinking the earth is flat doesn’t hurt or help anyone. Nothing is educationally gained from it, which makes me think ‘flat earth’ is just a vehicle to carry what a flerf’s real belief is: distrust of government. Having said that I think claiming the earth is flat, is the cornerstone belief for someone who really wishes to express how little they trust authority.
            I think David and people like him, are just using the social construct of race to express a different, underlying belief. Certainly something fear-based. For centuries humans have ‘made up’ answers to things not fully understood; flat earth belief was initially born this way. Once earth orbit and space travel objectively proved the shape of earth, it was on to other things not known-except for those few people who needed a really aggressive way of expressing their distrust of government and authority. If we can find out what David and people like him are afraid of, we might put the social construct of race out to the same pasture where the penguins guarding the ice wall reside.
          13. 9503c1029e502e5df80e1bdc048c9e8c
            More Weiss
            NOVEMBER 18, 2021 AT 3:39 PM
            David
            It’s OK for you to live somewhere very white.
            Antarctica is very white.
          14. 31a5f15585b5cdd1ff60f2d3da35ead8
            Roger
            MARCH 2, 2022 AT 10:14 AM
            Totally agree. This social experiment of trying to mix cultures when we are too diverse to do so is idiotic. I do believe that since there are definite differences genetically between various “races”, that we are at the very least different subspecies.
          15. d55a4b94f71f215faecfe1430a658fcd
            Fck
            APRIL 20, 2022 AT 2:20 PM
            Ok hitler. Just go follow your leader. Humanity doesn’t mind.
          16. 2f00c7d24c6b54ae281b7dc4ab642b39
            Chrioli
            MAY 12, 2022 AT 6:20 PM
            A white nation stolen from brown native Americans. See the insanity of your prejudicial thinking. Racism is as it is said,” out of the mouth the heart speaks” racism is at its core ignorance and narcissistic.
          17. 4d96a775d31365228829d91f2f6f828a
            Matt
            SEPTEMBER 5, 2022 AT 4:10 AM
            Being “white” means having a genetic defect that causes albinism. If your skin does not tan, it means it does not produce melanin, which protects skin, hair and eyes. Lack of melanin production is caused by a genetic defect, a mutated OCA2 gene. We are meant to have melanin, those who don’t have it have something wrong with them. https:// medlineplus. gov/genetics/gene/tyr/
        4. bfd5a98e310108bbb41725ea048589f4
          Jordan Williams
          JULY 31, 2019 AT 3:40 AM
          First of all, if you know how dna works… the dna Im one human body could stretch back from here to the sun back and forth many times over. Humans who left Africa bred with others outside of Africa such as the Neanderthals. So of course genetics from Africa would be hard to detect from over thousands of years of evolution but it doesn’t mean it’s not there it’s just not expressed as much as more recent admixtures. Also mixing is more genetically sound and proper biologically speaking, it can breed out defects and diseases and also improves genetic fitness with more mutations to draw from. Without mixing … if you’re not from Prehistoric Africa, you wouldn’t exist…. Europe Asia the Pacific the Americas wouldn’t exist as they do now or even at all
          REPLY
          1. 608d16feaac39a26d218179aa14ac000
            Lukas
            OCTOBER 5, 2019 AT 8:34 AM
            But mixing with different types who evolved in different environments can greatly change your children’s composition. Like brain size, IQ, impulsivity and likelyhood of committing violent crime.
 
Jabba The Hutt

Jabba The Hutt

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yeah this is pseudo science / race denialist cope.

if you pick two random people from the UK. they will be more genetically similar (on average) than if you pick someone from UK and from Italiy, for example.

there are also AIs that can predict with 90% accuracy the country you were born in from your DNA.
there are AIs that can predict with high accuracy the country you were born in from your face.

and the only reason it's only 90% and not 99.9% is because of all the immigration that is going on thanks to globalism.

if race didn't exist as a biological concept, this should not be possible
 
InMemoriam

InMemoriam

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there are AIs that can predict with high accuracy the country you were born in from your face.
are you talking about phenotypic variation assessment here :feelshehe:
 
Jabba The Hutt

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are you taking about phenotypic variation assessment here :feelshehe:

well I don't have the link anymore. but basically you have a large dataset of picture+location of birth and train the AI with it.
then it can predict place of birth for a new picture with good accuracy (statiscially significant)

that's only possible because in the space of genetics. people aren't uniformily distributed. there are clusters. and you can call those clusters ethnic groups, or races, doesn't matter. it's just a biological reality.
 
InMemoriam

InMemoriam

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well I don't have the link anymore. but basically you have a large dataset of picture+location of birth and train the AI with it.
then it can predict place of birth for a new picture with good accuracy (statiscially significant)

that's only possible because in the space of genetics. people aren't uniformily distributed. there are clusters. and you can call those clusters ethnic groups, or races, doesn't matter. it's just a biological reality.
yeah non denying that; indeed genetic and environmental factors play a major role in phenotypic facial variation

Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Factors​

Normal Facial Surface Morphology​

Standardized clinical facial charts/tables/measures are routinely used for newborns (e.g., head circumference, body length) and other specialties such as, ophthalmology and orthodontics. There are many published norms for different racial/population groups used to identify individuals who fall within the normal range and identify any facial dysmorphologies.

The soft tissue facial variation has been explored in a large Caucasian population of 15-year-old children (2514 females and 2233 males) recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Face height (28.8%), width of the eyes (10.4%) and prominence of the nose (6.7%) explained 46% of total facial variance (Toma et al., 2012). There were subtle differences between males and females in relation to the relative prominence of the lips, eyes, and nasal bridges including minor facial asymmetries (Toma et al., 2008, 2012; Wilson et al., 2013; Abbas et al., 2018). The dimorphic differences appear to follow similar patterns in different ethnic groups (Farnell et al., 2017).
 
fortniteroleplayer

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  1. 0e5df1879e6783352721e27efea713e1

    christopher
    FEBRUARY 2, 2022 AT 10:25 PM
    you are correct and evolution is still the dumbest thing human beings ever devised. The only Truth I know God of The Creator of Heavens and Earth tells us we are created in God’s image. Alot of people have already taken the mark of disobiedence aka mark of the beast. They act worse than animals because they have forfeited their freewill because they have chosen death over eternal life In and through High Priest King Lord Yeshua Saviour of the world. I believe wild animals have more since than anybody that believes in different races. God seperated us humans by language and not be skin color,hair,or by skeletal features. Being God has no respect of persons so why should he favor one skin color or skeletal features over another. there cut and dry simple.






    Legit.
 
Stupid Clown

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yeah this is pseudo science / race denialist cope.

if you pick two random people from the UK. they will be more genetically similar (on average) than if you pick someone from UK and from Italiy, for example.

there are also AIs that can predict with 90% accuracy the country you were born in from your DNA.
there are AIs that can predict with high accuracy the country you were born in from your face.

and the only reason it's only 90% and not 99.9% is because of all the immigration that is going on thanks to globalism.

if race didn't exist as a biological concept, this should not be possible
Another nigger copy pasting a whole article written by a Jewish tranny that no one's going to read.
 
Amir

Amir

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read every word
 
Man

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Conclusion: everyone is basically the same!

:soy: thanks soyence!
 
R

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  1. 0e5df1879e6783352721e27efea713e1

    christopher
    FEBRUARY 2, 2022 AT 10:25 PM
    you are correct and evolution is still the dumbest thing human beings ever devised. The only Truth I know God of The Creator of Heavens and Earth tells us we are created in God’s image. Alot of people have already taken the mark of disobiedence aka mark of the beast. They act worse than animals because they have forfeited their freewill because they have chosen death over eternal life In and through High Priest King Lord Yeshua Saviour of the world. I believe wild animals have more since than anybody that believes in different races. God seperated us humans by language and not be skin color,hair,or by skeletal features. Being God has no respect of persons so why should he favor one skin color or skeletal features over another. there cut and dry simple.






    Legit.
Absolutely delusional christcuck totally-lacking-perspective indoctrinated brainwashed bullshit
 
turdcel

turdcel

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We all know race is real jfl. There is a reason why college classes are dominated by asians and whites while jails are dominated by spics and nigs. We are not equal
 
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